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Six Types of Training and Development Methods
1.On-the-job Training and Lectures
The 2 most incessantly used kinds of training are on-the-job training and lectures, although little research exists as to the effectiveness of either. It is often not possible to teach somebody everything she needs to know at a location away from the workplace. Thus on-the-job training often supplements other kinds of training, e.g., classroom or off-site training; however on-the-job training is incessantly the only form of training. It is usually casual, which means, unfortunately, that the trainer does not concentrate on the training as much as she should, and the trainer may not have a well-articulated picture of what the novice must learn.
On-the-job training will not be profitable when used to avoid creating a training program, although it might be an effective a part of a well-coordinated training program.
Lectures are used because of their low value and their capacity to succeed in many people. Lectures, which use one-way communication as opposed to interactive learning methods, are much criticized as a training device.
2. Programmed Instruction (PI)
These gadgets systematically present information to the learner and elicit a response; they use reinforcement rules to promote appropriate responses. When PI was originally developed within the Fifties, it was regarded as useful only for basic subjects. As we speak the strategy is used for skills as numerous as air visitors management, blueprint reading, and the analysis of tax returns.
3. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
With CAI, students can be taught at their own pace, as with PI. Because the student interacts with the pc, it is believed by many to be a more dynamic learning device. Instructional options can be quickly chosen to suit the student's capabilities, and performance could be monitored continuously. As instruction proceeds, data are gathered for monitoring and improving performance.
4. Audiovisual Strategies
Each television and film extend the range of skills that can be taught and the way info could also be presented. Many systems have electronic blackboards and slide projection equipment. Using techniques that combine audiovisual systems similar to closed circuit television and telephones has spawned a new term for this type of training, teletraining. The feature on " Sesame Street " illustrates the design and evaluation of one of television's favorite children's program as a training device.
Training simulations replicate the essential characteristics of the real world which are necessary to produce both learning and the transfer of new knowledge and skills to application settings. Both machine and other types of simulators exist. Machine simulators typically have substantial degrees of. physical fidelity; that is, they characterize the real world's operational equipment. The main objective of simulation, however, is to produce psychological fidelity, that is, to reproduce in the training those processes that can be required on the job. We simulate for a number of reasons, together with to regulate the training surroundings, for safety, to introduce feedback and different learning rules, and to reduce cost.
6. Business games
They're the direct progeny of war games that have been used to train officers in fight techniques for hundreds of years. Almost all early business games had been designed to show primary business skills, but more latest games also embrace interpersonal skills. Monopoly is likely to be considered the quintessential enterprise game for young capitalists. It's probably the first place youngsters realized the words mortgage, taxes, and go to jail.
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